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## Predictor-corrector method

There are two methods that can be used to speed up a CG algorithm, the use of a preconditioning matrix and estimation of a better starting solution. The second method is the simplest to use. If some other method is used to estimate the solution of the linear equations, the CG algorithm can be used to refine the solution. The explicit method is an obvious candidate to produce an initial estimate of the solution. It is cheap and simple to implement. It does not matter that the explicit method can become unstable because it is only used to generate the initial solution. The final equations solved are those of the implicit method and these equations are known to be stable. Using an explicit solution as the input to an iterative solution of the implicit equations, is known as the predictor-corrector'' method. The table in Figure 5 shows the number of iteration required for the predictor-corrector method to converge. The explicit method used in this implementation is the one given by equation 2. The method converges in fewer iterations for most frequencies, but for the low frequencies it actually takes more iterations than the simple CG method. This implies that the explicit solution gave a worse estimate of the correct solution than a zero vector. This is a disappointing result as I had hoped that the predictor-corrector method would improve the convergence of the CG algorithm at low frequencies whereas the reverse seems to be true.

One possible reason for this can be seen by considering the impulse response of the migration in Figure .

 data.cut Figure 2 Impulse response of implicit migration

Many of the lowest frequencies in this figure are in the top of the heart, the highest dips having the lowest frequency content. Since we know that this algorithm is inaccurate for dips above about , we should not put a lot of effort into solving the implicit equation for dips where the result is known to be wrong. One simple way of avoiding this effect is to dip filter the input so that high dips are not present in the data. The data should at least be filtered so that no evanescent energy is present in the input section. I chose to filter the input spike to attenuate dips above .The impulse response produced by migrating the filtered spike is shown in Figure . The table in Figure 6 shows the number of iterations required for convergence when migrating the filtered spike. The predictor-corrector method is now uniformly better than the simple CG method. However, the decrease in the number of iterations is small. The main reason is that the explicit scheme is inaccurate at low frequencies. I would prefer a predictor step that is accurate at low frequencies at the expense of high frequency accuracy. The high frequencies converge rapidly without a predictor step, it is the low frequencies that require acceleration.

 filtdata.cut Figure 3 implicit migration of a filtered spike

Next: Other options Up: DOWNWARD CONTINUATION IN THREE Previous: Conjugate gradient implicit schemes
Stanford Exploration Project
12/18/1997