Angle-domain illumination gathers by wave-equation-based methods |
In a locally constant velocity medium (Figure 1),
the midpoint ray parameter
and the subsurface offset ray parameter
can be expressed as follows:
(7) | |||
(8) |
local-phase-relation
Figure 1. Geometric relations between ray vectors at a reflection point in a locally constant velocity medium. [NR] | |
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We obtain the scattering-angle-domain Hessian by correlating the sensitivity kernels
as follows:
As a simple example, Figures 3 shows the real part of the scattering-angle-domain sensitivity kernel, converted from its subsurface-offset-domain counterpart (Figure 2). The results are obtained by using a constant velocity model ( m/s), and only one source ( m), one receiver ( m) and one frequency ( Hz) are computed. Figure 4 shows the corresponding single-frequency scatter-angle-domain illumination for the given velocity model and acquisition configuration. Since there are only one source and one receiver, each subsurface point is illuminated by only one scattering angle.
The scattering-angle-domain illumination is useful for point scatterers, it, however, fails to accurately predict the illumination strength for planar reflectors, where the scattered waves have preferred orientations according to the local dips of the reflectors. The reason behind this is that the transformation (equation 11) is dip-independent, the resulting angle-domain illumination implicitly averages over all dip angles and measures the overall scattering-angle illumination from all dips illuminated, instead of the illumination from one particular dip of the actual planar reflector. This point is further illustrated by Figures 5 and 6, where the computed scattering-angle-domain illumination (Figure 6(d)) accurately predicts the illumination for the point scatterer (Figures 5(c) and 6(c)), instead of the horizontal (Figures 5(a) and 6(a)) and the dipping reflectors (Figures 5(b) and 6(b)).
const-kernel-odcig-1s1r-1w
Figure 2. The real part of the subsurface-offset-domain sensitivity kernel for a constant velocity model ( m/s), one source at m, one receiver at m and one frequency ( Hz). Panel (a) shows the kernel at zero-subsurface-offset; (b), (c) and (d) show the kernel for different spatial locations at m, 0 m and m, respectively. [CR] |
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const-kernel-adcig-1s1r-1w
Figure 3. The real part of the scattering-angle-domain sensitivity kernel after conversion from the subsurface offset domain (Figure 2). Panel (a) shows the sensitivity kernel for a constant scattering angle ; (b), (c) and (d) show the kernel for spatial locations at m, 0 m and m, respectively. [CR] |
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const-hess-adcig-1s1r-1w
Figure 4. The single-frequency scattering-angle-domain illumination obtained using the sensitivity kernel shown in Figure 3. Panel (a) shows the illumination for scattering angle ; (b), (c) and (d) show the illumination angle gathers for spatial locations at m, 0 m and m, respectively. [CR] |
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const-imag-stack
Figure 5. Migrated zero-subsurface-offset images (stacked images) for (a) a horizontal reflector, (b) a dipping reflector ( ) and (c) a point scatterer. All images are obtained by migrating only one shot located at m, where receivers spread from m to m with a m spacing. [CR] |
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const-imag-adcig
Figure 6. The scattering-angle-domain image gathers extracted at spatial location 0 m for (a) the horizontal reflector, (b) the dipping reflector and (c) the point scatterer. Panel (d) shows the scattering-angle-domain illumination gather extracted at the same spatial location. [CR] | |
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Angle-domain illumination gathers by wave-equation-based methods |