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**reflectivity
**

Figure 1 The acoustic wave reflectivity and the transmission of a planar reflector in the case of zero incident angle

From Fig.1, and assuming that the density is constant, the normal reflectivity is defined as

| |
(16) |

and the transmission coefficient is
| |
(17) |

where is the incident angle. Therefore, defining the scattering potential as , equation (16) and (17) can be rewritten as
| |
(18) |

and
| |
(19) |

respectively.
If waves meet a reflector with a non-zero incident angle, the reflectivity and transmission coefficient are
| |
(20) |

and
| |
(21) |

Similarly, they can be expressed with the scattering potential as
| |
(22) |

and
| |
(23) |

respectively.
The angle reflectivity has a close relation to the scattering potentials. Generally, the angle reflectivity is estimated by amplitude-preserved imaging, and lithological parameter disturbances are evaluated from them by AVO/AVA inversion.

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** Up:** wave propagator and its
** Previous:** [2] Scalar wave equation
Stanford Exploration Project

11/1/2005