A three-dimensional prediction-error filter applied to a stationary image volume will tend to whiten it unconditionally. Potentially, any coherent component of a stationary image is removed. In practice, the size of the filter and the accuracy of the estimation of its coefficients limit the predictive powers of a filter and yield an image that is not entirely white. In particular, a three-dimensional prediction filter removes a plane-wave image.

3/8/1999