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## PSPM as a spreading operator

The PSPM operator defined in equations (1) can be written as function of the half-offset h, half-velocity V, and source-receiver travel time th:
 (2)

Defining the variables ,we can rewrite equations (2) as

 (3)

Equations (3) are parametric representations of the PSPM operator, function of two new variables: and .The variable is the NMO corrected constant-offset travel time, while the variable is the px=dt / dx parameter.

In Figure 1 the PSPM operator is mapped using equations (3). The elliptic curves represent curves of constant parameter, while the vertical curves are curves of constant parameter. The PSPM operator is represented by and coordinates, which is a velocity independent characterization. The velocity cutoff is contained in the parameter , which is increasing toward the edges of the plot.

The cutoff is determined by the parameter . Higher velocities introduce the restriction in the parameter which cannot be higher than 1 / V, where V is half-velocity. A medium with velocity V1 will have a tighter cutoff than a medium with lower velocity V2, (V1 > V2). In the first case the parameter takes values from to 1 / V1, () while in the second case the parameter ranges from to 1 / V2 (). Two different media will share the same PSPM operator for the same values of . On the same DMO ellipse two media with velocities V1,V2 migrate an impulse to the same place if the equality is satisfied. For a higher velocity medium, a high dip is migrated in the same place as a lower dip in a lower velocity medium.

Equations (3) map the PSPM operator as a function of the variables and . In a constant velocity medium, for each point in the (, )space there corresponds a pair of values (, ) and vice-versa. For a medium with variable velocity with depth V(z), it was shown that for certain velocity models the DMO impulse response presents triplications (Popovici and Biondi, 1989). Supposing the PSPM operator is represented in a system of coordinates (, ), for certain velocity models the transformation is not unique, thus generating the triplications in the PSPM curve. In a medium with variable velocity, this can be determined by following the variation of the parameter along the equal travel time reflector. When the value of is repeated along the same reflector with a given ,the PSPM operator will have multiple values of the pair of parameters (x0,t0) for the same value of .According to this scheme it can be predicted for what types of media the PSPM operator will be multivalued in the parameter .

Next: PSPM as a summation Up: THE PSPM OPERATOR Previous: THE PSPM OPERATOR
Stanford Exploration Project
1/13/1998