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Recall the traveltime equation ([*]).
v^2 \, t^2
z^2 \ +\ x^2
\\ t^2
\tau^2 \ +\ { x^2 \over v^2 } \end{eqnarray} (8)
where $\tau$ is traveltime depth. This equation gives either time from a surface source to a receiver at depth $\tau$,or it gives time to a surface receiver from an image source at depth $\tau$.

A seismic trace is a signal d(t) recorded at some constant x. We can convert the trace to a ``vertical propagation'' signal $m(\tau)=d(t)$by stretching t to $\tau$.This process is called ``normal moveout correction'' (NMO). Typically we have many traces at different x distances each of which theoretically produces the same hypothetical zero-offset trace. Figure 1 shows a marine shot profile before and after NMO correction at the water velocity. You can notice that the wave packet reflected from the ocean bottom is approximately a constant width on the raw data. After NMO, however, this waveform broadens considerably--a phenomenon known as ``NMO stretch."

Figure 1
Marine data moved out with water velocity. Input on the left, output on the right. Press button for movie sweeping through velocity (actually through slowness squared).

[*] view burn build edit restore

The NMO transformation ${\bf N}$ is representable as a square matrix. The matrix ${\bf N}$ is a $(\tau,t)$-plane containing all zeros except an interpolation operator centered along the hyperbola. The dots in the matrix below are zeros. The input signal dt is put into the vector $\bold d$.The output vector $\bold m$--i.e., the NMO'ed signal--is simply (d6,d6,d6, d7,d7, d8,d8, d9, d10, 0). In real life examples such as Figure 1 the subscript goes up to about one thousand instead of merely to ten.

{\bf m\eq Nd} \eq
 m_1 \\  
 ...\  d_6 \\  d_7 \\  d_8 \\  d_9 \\  d_{10}
 \end{array} \right] \end{displaymath} (10)

You can think of the matrix as having a horizontal t-axis and a vertical $\tau$-axis. The 1's in the matrix are arranged on the hyperbola $t^2=\tau^2+x_0^2/v^2$.The transpose matrix defining some ${\bf \tilde d}$from $\bold m$ gives synthetic data ${\bf \tilde d}$ from the zero-offset (or stack) model $\bold m$, namely,

{\bf \tilde d \eq N' m } \eq
 ...\\  m_6 \\  m_7 \\  m_8 \\  m_9 \\  m_{10}
 \end{array} \right]\end{displaymath} (11)

A program for nearest-neighbor normal moveout as defined by

equations (10) and (11) is nmo0(). Because of the limited alphabet of programming languages, I used the keystroke z to denote $\tau$. 

subroutine nmo0( adj, add, slow,    x, t0, dt, n,zz,  tt )
integer  it, iz, adj, add,                        n
real  xs, t , z,           slow(n), x, t0, dt, zz(n), tt(n)
call adjnull(    adj, add,                     zz,n,  tt,n)
do iz= 1, n {   z = t0 + dt*(iz-1)              # Travel-time depth
                xs= x * slow(iz)
                t = sqrt ( z * z + xs * xs)
                it= 1 + .5 + (t - t0) / dt      # Round to nearest neighbor.
                if( it <= n )
                        if( adj == 0 )
                                tt(it) = tt(it) + zz(iz)
                                zz(iz) = zz(iz) + tt(it)
return; end

A program is a ``pull'' program if the loop creating the output covers each location in the output and gathers the input from wherever it may be. A program is a ``push'' program if it takes each input and pushes it to wherever it belongs. Thus this NMO program is a ``pull'' program for doing the model building (data processing), and it is a ``push'' program for the data building. You could write a program that worked the other way around, namely, a loop over t with z found by calculation $z=\sqrt{t^2/v^2-x^2}$.What is annoying is that if you want a push program going both ways, those two ways cannot be adjoint to one another.

Normal moveout is a linear operation. This means that data can be decomposed into any two parts, early and late, high frequency and low, smooth and rough, steep and shallow dip, etc.; and whether the two parts are NMO'ed either separately or together, the result is the same. The reason normal moveout is a linear operation is that we have shown it is effectively a matrix multiply operation and that operation fulfills ${\bf N(d_1+d_2) = Nd_1+Nd_2}$.

next up previous print clean
Next: COMMON-MIDPOINT STACKING Up: Moveout, velocity, and stacking Previous: Formal inversion
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