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## Linking Snell waves to Fourier transforms

To link Snell waves to Fourier transforms we merge equations () and () with equations (10)
 (12) (13)

The basic downward continuation equation for upcoming waves in Fourier space follows from equation (7) by eliminating p by using equation (12). For analysis of real seismic data we introduce a minus sign because equation (13) refers to downgoing waves and observed data is made from up-coming waves.
 (14)
In Fourier space we delay signals by multiplying by ,analogously, equation (14) says we downward continue signals into the earth by multiplying by .Multiplication in the Fourier domain means convolution in time which can be depicted by the engineering diagram in Figure 5.

inout
Figure 5
Downward continuation of a downgoing wavefield.

Downward continuation is a product relationship in both the -domain and the kx-domain. Thus it is a convolution in both time and x. What does the filter look like in the time and space domain? It turns out like a cone, that is, it is roughly an impulse function of x2+z2 - v2 t2. More precisely, it is the Huygens secondary wave source that was exemplified by ocean waves entering a gap through a storm barrier. Adding up the response of multiple gaps in the barrier would be convolution over x.

A nuisance of using Fourier transforms in migration and modeling is that spaces become periodic. This is demonstrated in Figure 6. Anywhere an event exits the frame at a side, top, or bottom boundary, the event immediately emerges on the opposite side. In practice, the unwelcome effect of periodicity is generally ameliorated by padding zeros around the data and the model.

diag
Figure 6
A reflectivity model on the left and synthetic data using a Fourier method on the right.

Next: PHASE-SHIFT MIGRATION Up: DOWNWARD CONTINUATION Previous: Downward continuation with Fourier
Stanford Exploration Project
12/26/2000