(1) | ||

(2) |

subroutine nmo0( adj, add, slow, x, t0, dt, n,zz, tt ) integer it, iz, adj, add, n real xs, t , z, slow(n), x, t0, dt, zz(n), tt(n) call adjnull( adj, add, zz,n, tt,n) do iz= 1, n { z = t0 + dt*(iz-1) # Travel-time depth xs= x * slow(iz) t = sqrt ( z * z + xs * xs) it= 1 + .5 + (t - t0) / dt # Round to nearest neighbor. if( it <= n ) if( adj == 0 ) tt(it) = tt(it) + zz(iz) else zz(iz) = zz(iz) + tt(it) } return; end

subroutine adjnull( adj, add, x, nx, y, ny ) integer ix, iy, adj, add, nx, ny real x( nx), y( ny ) if( add == 0 ) if( adj == 0 ) do iy= 1, ny y(iy) = 0. else do ix= 1, nx x(ix) = 0. return; end

The adjoint operation begins from a model like the zero-offset trace
and sprays this trace to all offsets.
The moveout and stack operations are done by subroutine `stack0()`
with the `adj=1` argument
and the modeling operation is done by
subroutine `stack0()` with the `adj=0` argument.

subroutine stack0( adj, add, slow, t0,dt, x0,dx, nt,nx, stack, gather) integer ix, adj, add, nt,nx real x, slow(nt), t0,dt, x0,dx, stack(nt), gather(nt,nx) call adjnull( adj, add, stack,nt, gather,nt*nx) do ix= 1, nx { x = x0 + dx * (ix-1) call nmo0( adj, 1, slow, x, t0,dt, nt, stack, gather(1,ix)) } return; end

Figure 1 illustrates the modeling operator and its adjoint.

stack
Top is a model trace . Center shows the spraying to synthetic traces, . Bottom is the stack of the synthetic data, .Figure 1 |

Notice the roughness on the waveforms caused by different numbers of points landing in one place. Notice also the increase of AVO (amplitude versus offset) as the waveform gets compressed into a smaller space. Finally, notice that the stack is a little rough, but the energy is all in the desired time window.

Parenthetically, we notice a contradiction of aspirations. On the one hand, an operator has smooth outputs if it ``loops over output space'' and finds its input where ever it may. On the other hand, it is nice to have modeling and processing be exact adjoints of each other. Unfortunately, we cannot have both. If you loop over the output space of an operator, then the adjoint operator has a loop over input space and a consequent roughness of its output.

11/16/1997