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# MOVEOUT AND STACK

We begin from familiar normal moveout equations

 (1) (2)
where is traveltime depth. A program for nearest-neighbor normal moveout as defined by equation (2) is nmo0() . Because of the limited alphabet of programming languages, I used the keystroke z to denote .

subroutine nmo0( adj, add, slow,    x, t0, dt, n,zz,  tt )
real  xs, t , z,           slow(n), x, t0, dt, zz(n), tt(n)
do iz= 1, n {	z = t0 + dt*(iz-1)		# Travel-time depth
xs= x * slow(iz)
t = sqrt ( z * z + xs * xs)
it= 1 + .5 + (t - t0) / dt	# Round to nearest neighbor.
if( it <= n )
tt(it) = tt(it) + zz(iz)
else
zz(iz) = zz(iz) + tt(it)
}
return; end


subroutine adjnull( adj, add, x, nx,  y, ny )
real  			      x( nx), y( ny )
do iy= 1, ny
y(iy) = 0.
else
do ix= 1, nx
x(ix) = 0.
return; end


The adjoint operation begins from a model like the zero-offset trace and sprays this trace to all offsets. The moveout and stack operations are done by subroutine stack0() with the adj=1 argument and the modeling operation is done by subroutine stack0() with the adj=0 argument.

subroutine stack0( adj, add, slow,     t0,dt, x0,dx, nt,nx, stack, gather)
real     x,                  slow(nt), t0,dt, x0,dx,   stack(nt), gather(nt,nx)
do ix= 1, nx {
x = x0 + dx * (ix-1)
call nmo0( adj, 1, slow, x, t0,dt, nt, stack, gather(1,ix))
}
return; end


Figure 1 illustrates the modeling operator and its adjoint.

 stack Figure 1 Top is a model trace . Center shows the spraying to synthetic traces, . Bottom is the stack of the synthetic data, .

Notice the roughness on the waveforms caused by different numbers of points landing in one place. Notice also the increase of AVO (amplitude versus offset) as the waveform gets compressed into a smaller space. Finally, notice that the stack is a little rough, but the energy is all in the desired time window.

Parenthetically, we notice a contradiction of aspirations. On the one hand, an operator has smooth outputs if it loops over output space'' and finds its input where ever it may. On the other hand, it is nice to have modeling and processing be exact adjoints of each other. Unfortunately, we cannot have both. If you loop over the output space of an operator, then the adjoint operator has a loop over input space and a consequent roughness of its output.

Next: CROSSING TRAVELTIME CURVES Up: Claerbout: Stacking fundamentals Previous: INTRODUCTION
Stanford Exploration Project
11/16/1997