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# HANKEL TAIL

The waveform in equation (4) often arises in practice (as the 2-D Huygen's wavelet). Because of the discontinuities on the left side of equation (4), it is not easy to visualize. Thinking again of the time derivative as a convolution with the doublet ,we imagine the 2-D Huygen's wavelet as a positive impulse followed by negative signal decaying as -t-3/2. This decaying signal is sometimes called the Hankel tail.'' In the frequency domain has a 90 degree phase angle and has a 45 degree phase angle.

In practice, it is easiest to represent and to apply the 2-D Huygen's wavelet in the frequency domain. Subroutine halfdif() is provided for that purpose. Instead of using which has a discontinuity at the Nyquist frequency and a noncausal time function, I use the square root of a causal representation of a finite difference, i.e. ,(see any reference on Z-transforms) which is well behaved at the Nyquist frequency and has the advantage that the modeling operator is causal (vanishes when t<t0). (Fourier transform is done using subroutine ftu() from PVI.) Passing an impulse function into subroutine halfdif() gives the response seen in Figure 1.

# Half order causal derivative.
#
subroutine halfdif(  conj, n, x,    y)
integer n2, i,       conj, n
real	omega,                x(n), y(n)
complex cz,                              cv(4096)
n2=1; while(n2<n) n2=2*n2;         if( n2 > 4096) call erexit('halfdif memory')
do i= 1, n2 {		  cv(i) = 0.}
do i= 1, n
if( conj == 0)	{ cv(i) = x(i)}
else		{ cv(i) = y(i)}
call ftu( +1., n2, cv)
do i= 1, n2 {
omega = (i-1.) * 2.*3.14159265 / n2
cz = csqrt( 1. - cexp( cmplx( 0., omega)))
if( conj != 0)   cz = conjg( cz)
cv(i) = cv(i) * cz
}
call ftu( -1., n2, cv)
do i= 1, n
if( conj == 0)	{ y(i) = cv(i)}
else		{ x(i) = cv(i)}
return; end


 hankel Figure 1 Impulse response (delayed) of finite difference operator of half order. Twice applying this filter is equivalent to once applying (1,-1).

Next: HUYGEN'S SECONDARY SOURCE Up: Claerbout: Hankel tail Previous: FRACTIONAL ORDER OPERATORS
Stanford Exploration Project
11/17/1997