Because of the potential rewards, Fowler and Al-Yahya (1986) tried to formulate residual prestack migration. They concluded that it is possible to construct an operator that converts constant-offset or shot-profile data, migrated with one velocity, to data migrated at another velocity. However, the operator is not equivalent to applying constant-offset migration or shot profile migration with some other velocity which is the case for zero-offset residual migration. Because the operator they obtained was not a ``migration" in the classical sense, it seemed that residual prestack migration would not be as useful as residual zero-offset migration.
My velocity analysis project (Etgen, 1988, 1989) requires the ability to find changes in migrated images due to perturbations in the velocity model used for prestack depth migration. In the past, approximated residual migration to derive residual moveout corrections that can be applied to migrated constant-offset sections. The residual migration operators of this paper supercede the previous residual moveout operators. To obtain an inexpensive residual migration operator I make two approximations. First, I only use the stationary phase path of the full residual migration operator. Second, I build the operators only for the constant-velocity case. The residual migration is only a residual time migration; ray bending is ignored in the construction of the migration operator.
Subtracting the kinematics of residual zero-offset migration from the kinematics of residual constant-offset migration, leaves an operator that performs only residual DMO and residual NMO. This converts migrated constant-offset sections to zero-offset sections for a change in the migration velocity. Note that if the velocity doesn't change, migrated constant-offset sections are already converted to migrated zero-offset sections. Residual constant-offset NMO+DMO is useful for velocity analysis. It provides a velocity analysis method analogous to stacking velocity analysis, that works in arbitrary structure and after prestack depth migration.