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The problem of interpolating irregularly sampled data, like the Galilee data set, onto a regular grid to produce a map can be written in terms of the fitting goals of an inverse linear interpolation problem Claerbout (1999):
\bf 0 &\approx& \bf Lm - d \nonumber \\  \bf 0 &\approx& \bf \epsilon Am\end{eqnarray}
${\bf L}$ is the linear operator which maps data onto the map. Usually ${\bf L}$ is either a binning or a bilinear interpolation operator. The second equation in system (1) is a regularization term where ${\bf A}$ is a roughening operator that imposes smoothness of the model in this underdetermined problem, at the price of fitting data exactly. Everywhere below, ${\bf L}$ is a binning operator (${\bf B}$)and ${\bf A}$ denotes a gradient filter consisting of two first order derivatives.

To suppress the artifacts caused by non-Gaussian noise in the data, Fomel and Claerbout (1995) introduced a weighting operator W:
\bf 0 &\approx& \bf W(Bm - d) \nonumber \\  \bf 0 &\approx& \bf \epsilon Am\end{eqnarray}
The choice of the weighting operator $\bf W$ follows two formal principles:

Statistically bad data points (spikes) are indicated by large values of the residual ${\bf r=Bm-d}$

Abnormally large residuals attract most of the conjugate gradient solvers effort, directing it the wrong way. The residual should be whitened to distribute the solvers attention equally among all the data points to emphasize the role of the ``consistent majority''
Based on these principles operator $\bf W$ in equation (2) was chosen by Fomel and Claerbout (1995) to include two components: the first derivative filter D taken in the space along the record tracks and the diagonal weighting operator ${\bf \tilde{W}}$.
\bf 0 &\approx& \bf \tilde{W}D(Bm - d) \nonumber \\  \bf 0 &\approx& \bf \epsilon Am\end{eqnarray}
Fomel and Claerbout (1995) chose weighting function to be ${\bf
\tilde{W}_i=\tilde{W}(r_i)=\frac{2\overline{r}}{\vert r_i\vert+\overline{r_i}}}$, where $\overline{r}$ stands for the median of the absolute values from the whole dataset, and $\overline{r_i}$ is the median in a small window around a current point ri. Since ${\bf \tilde{W}}$ depends upon the residual, the inversion problem becomes non-linear and system (3) can be solved using a piece-wise linear approach Fomel and Claerbout (1995). However, Fomel and Claerbout (1995) showed that while the noisy portion of the model disappeared, the price of the improvement is a loss of the image resolution.

In our approach we use a bank of PEFs to decorrelate the residual. Using Prediction Error Filters as a residual whitener better satisfy the second of the formal principles used by Fomel and Claerbout (1995). Since the character of the systematic errors in the data may vary in time and upon the location of the ship, an individual PEF ${\bf P_i}$ is estimated for each data track from the residual obtained after solving system (1). In this case we defined a data track as a series of measurements recorded with a distance less than 100 meters between consecutive data points. System (3) then becomes:
\bf 0 &\approx& \bf \tilde{W}P(Bm - d) \nonumber \\  \bf 0 &\approx& \bf \epsilon Am\end{eqnarray}
${\bf P}$ is an operator composed from PEFs ${\bf P_i}$.After a bank of PEFs is estimated we solve this non-linear problem [equation (4)] in the manner of piece-wise linearization similar to Fomel and Claerbout (1995). The first step of the piece-wise linearization is the conventional least squares linearization. The next step consists of reweighted least squares iterations made in several cycles with reweighting applied only at the beginning of each cycle. We chose the weighting function ${\bf \tilde{W}}$ to be ${\bf \tilde{W}_i=
\tilde{W}(r_i)=\frac{1}{{(1+{r_i}^2/\overline{r_i}^2})^{1/4}}}$ Claerbout (1999).

In the next section we compare the maps obtained by the three different methods.

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Next: Results Up: Karpushin and Brown: PEFs Previous: Data Description
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