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GP280 - 3-D Seismic Imaging

Course Facts

Lectures: MWF 1:30-2:20 PM, Mitchell 452
Instructor: Biondo Biondi
Teaching Assistant: Huy Le
TA Office Hours: TBD, Mitchell 465. Send email to
3 units with labs, 2 units without; letter grade.
6 computer-based homework assignments
Schedule: Schedule (PDF format) sched.pdf
On the right: Stack (after migration) of a 3-D data volume acquired over a salt body.


Bulletin description

Principles of imaging complex structures in the Earth subsurface by use of 3-D reflection seismology. The emphasis is on processing methodologies and algorithms, with examples of applications to field data. Topics include: acquisition geometries of land and marine 3-D seismic surveys, time vs. depth imaging, prestack Kirchhoff migration, dip moveout, zero-offset and prestack downward continuation, full separation and splitting, migration velocity analysis, velocity model building, imaging irregularly sampled and aliased data. Computational labs involve some programming.


Go to GP280 labs page

You will be given 6 hands-on homework assignments throughout the quarter. Although you are not expected to be an expert programmer, most of the labs require modification of Fortran90 code. If you run into trouble, refer to this list of Fortran90 tutorial, or ask the TA.

Date Topic Notes
4/1 Introduction Introduction
4/3 3D Geometries chapter1.pdf
4/5 Sep3D software (Appendix 1)
4/8 Kirchhoff prestack migration (Chapter 2)
4/10 Kirchhoff prestack migration (isotropy vs anisotropy) class handout
4/12 NMO+DMO+AMO and prestack partial migration (Chapter 3)
4/15 Wavefield-continuation migration (Chapter 4)
4/17 Numerical methods for wavefield-continuation - two way wave equation Notes
4/19 Numerical methods for downward continuation - one way wave equation (Chapter 5)
4/22 Numerical methods for downward continuation (isotropic and anisotropic) (Chapter 5 + Notes)
4/24 Wavefield-continuation migration as adjoint of wavefield modeling (Notes)
4/26 Common image gathers in offsets and angles (Chapter 6)
4/29 Gaussian Beam migration see Chapter6.pdf
5/1 Plane-wave and phase encoding migration (Chapter 7)
5/3 Plane-wave and phase encoding migration (Chapter 7)
5/6 3D marine wave-equation migration methods (Chapter 7)
5/8 Imaging and aliasing (Chapter 8)
5/10 Imaging and irregular geometries (Chapter 9)
5/13 Imaging and irregular illumination + linearized Inversion) Notes
5/15 Stacking velocity, Dix inversion, and traveltime tomography (Chapter 10)
5/17 Inversion of stacking velocities (Chapter 10) and time migration velocity analysis (Chapter 11)
5/20 Residual moveout analysis and residual migration (Chapter 11)
5/22 Vertical and tomographic velocity updating (Chapter 11)
5/24 Tomographic velocity updating (Chapter 11)
5/27 Memorial Day, No class
5/29 Wave equation migration velocity analysis (Chapter 12)
5/31 Linearized inversion and least-squares reverse time migration (Notes)
6/3 Principles of full-waveform inversion and its limitation (notes)
Additional notes
lloydBB.pdf Lloyd's algorithm to choose optimal reference velocities for wave-equation migration
Full-wave-2011.pdf Solving the wave-equation using time domain finite-differences
adjstate.pdf Migration as the adjoint of linearized modeling
WaveTomo-Combo.pdf Full waveform inversion and wave-equation tomography

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