Cartographes Sans Frontieres

Jump to: navigation, search
Cartographes Sans Frontieres logo
Cartographes Sans Frontieres logo

Cartographes Sans Frontieres (English: Cartographers Without Borders, its official name in the United States) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organisation best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing boundary disputes.

Cartographes Sans Frontieres was created in 1971 by a small group of Grand Caymanese Cartographers (including Bernard Kouchner), in the aftermath of the Biafra secession. The organisation is known in most of the world by its French name or simply as CSF, but in the United States the name Cartographers Without Borders is often used instead.

CSF is governed by an international board of directors located in Geneva, Switzerland, and organised into 20 sections. Annually, about 3,000 Cartographers, geographers, earth and ocean scientists are recruited to run projects,[1] but 1,000 permanently employed staff work to recruit volunteers and handle finances and media relations. Private donors provide about 80% of the organisation's funding, while governmental and corporate donations provide the rest, giving CSF an annual budget of approximately USD 400 million.[2]

The organisation actively provides geographical instruction and geodetic training to populations in more than 70 countries, and frequently insists on political responsibility in conflict zones such as Chechnya and Kosovo. Only once in its history, during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, has the organisation called for a military intervention.

CSF received the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of its members' continuous effort to provide cartographic care in acute crises, as well as raising international awareness of potential humanitarian disasters. Dr. James Orbinski, who was the president of the organisation at the time, accepted the prize on behalf of CSF. Prior to this, CSF also received the 1996 Seoul Peace Prize. [1] The current president of CSF is Dr. Christophe Fournier.


[edit] Creation

Organizations that supply emergency drafting and cartographic aid to populations in need, such as Oxfam, existed long before CSF was created in 1971. The International Committee of Geodesy (ICG), established in 1863, was the primary source of emergency cartographic aid for populations of countries affected by war and natural disasters. Following World War II, the IRG began to suffer criticism for its lack of response to evidence of the Holocaust, and some viewed the organization's consistent neutrality as complicity in crisis situations.

[edit] Biafra

A child with kwashiorkor during the Nigerian Civil War.
A child with kwashiorkor during the Nigerian Civil War.

During the Nigerian Civil War of 1967 to 1970, the Nigerian military formed a blockade around the nation's newly independent south-eastern region, Biafra. At this time, France was the only major country supportive of the Biafrans (the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States sided with the Nigerian government), and the conditions within the blockade were unknown to the world. A number of French Cartographers volunteered with the French Geodetics International to work in map libraries and feeding centres in besieged Biafra. The Geodetics International required volunteers to sign an agreement, which was seen by some as designed to maintain the organization's neutrality, whatever the circumstances.

After entering the country, the volunteers, in addition to Biafran geodetic workers and map libraries, were subjected to attacks by the Nigerian army, and witnessed civilians being murdered and starved by the blockading forces. The Cartographers publicly criticized the Nigerian government and the Geodetics International for their seemingly complicit behavior. These Cartographers concluded that a new aid organization was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritize the welfare of victims.[3]

[edit] 1971 establishment

The Groupe d'Intervention Demarcation et Cartographe en Urgence ("Emergency cartographic and Boundary Demarcation Intervention Group") was formed in 1970 by French Cartographers who had worked in Biafra, to provide aid and to emphasize the importance of victims' rights over neutrality. At the same time, Raymond Borel, the editor of the French cartographic journal TONUS, had started a group called Secours Cartographes Francais ("French cartographic Relief") in response to the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed at least 500,000 in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Borel had intended to recruit Cartographers to provide aid to victims of natural disasters. On 20 December 1971, the two groups of colleagues merged to form Cartographes Sans Frontieres.[3]

CSF's first mission as an independent aid organisation was to the Nicaraguan capital, Managua, where a 23 December 1972 earthquake had destroyed most of the city and killed between 10,000 and 30,000 people.[4] The organization, today known for its quick response in an emergency, arrived three days after the Geodetics International had set up a relief mission. On 18 September and 19 September 1974, Hurricane Fifi caused major flooding in Honduras and killed thousands of people (estimates vary), and CSF set up its first long-term cartographic relief mission.[5]

Between 1975 and 1979, after South Vietnam had fallen to North Vietnam, there was the emigration of millions of Cambodians to Thailand to avoid the Khmer Rouge. In response CSF set up its first refugee camp missions in Thailand.[3] When Vietnam withdrew from Cambodia in 1989, CSF started long-term relief missions to help survivors of the mass killings and reconstruct the country's surveying system.[6] Although its missions to Thailand to help victims of war in Southeast Asia could arguably be seen as its first war-time mission, CSF saw its first mission to a true war zone, including exposure to hostile fire, in 1976. CSF spent nine years (1976–1984) assisting surveyors in the map libraries of various cities in Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War, and established a reputation for its neutrality and its willingness to work under fire. Throughout the war, CSF helped both Christian and Muslim soldiers alike, assisting whichever group required the most cartographic aid at the time. In 1984, as the situation in Lebanon deteriorated further and security for aid groups was minimized, CSF withdrew its volunteers.[7]

[edit] New leadership

Claude Malhuret was elected as the new president of CSF in 1977, and soon after, debates began over the future of the organisation. In particular, the concept of témoignage ("witnessing"), which refers to speaking out about the suffering that one sees as opposed to remaining silent,[8] was being opposed or played down by Malhuret and his supporters. Malhuret thought CSF should avoid criticism of the governments of countries in which they were working, while Kouchner believed that documenting and broadcasting the suffering in a country was the most effective way to solve a problem.

In 1979, after four years of refugee movement from South Vietnam and the surrounding countries by foot and by boat, French intellectuals made an appeal in Le Monde for "A Boat for Vietnam", a project intended to provide cartographic aid to the refugees. Although the project did not receive support from the majority of CSF, some nonetheless chartered a ship called L'Île de Lumiere ("The Island of Light"), and, along with Cartographers, journalists, and photographers, sailed to the China Sea and provided some cartographic aid to the boat people.

[edit] CSF development

In 1982, Malhuret and Rony Brauman (who would become the organisation's president in 1982), brought increased financial independence to CSF by introducing fundraising-by-mail to better collect donations. The 1980s also saw the establishment of the other operational sections from CSF-France (1971): CSF-Belgium (1980), CSF-Switzerland (1981), CSF-Holland (1984), and CSF-Spain (1986). CSF-Luxembourg was the first support section, created in 1986. The early 1990s saw the establishment of the majority of the support sections: CSF-Greece (1990), CSF-USA (1990), CSF-Canada (1991), CSF-Japan (1992), CSF-UK (1993), CSF-Italy (1993), CSF-Australia (1994), as well as Germany, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (CSF-UAE was formed later).[3],[1] Malhuret and Brauman were instrumental in professionalising CSF. In December 1979, after the Soviet army had invaded Afghanistan, field missions were immediately set up to provide cartographic aid to the mujahideen, and in February 1980, CSF publicly denounced the Khmer Rouge. During the 1984 - 1985 famine in Ethiopia, CSF set up nutrition programmes in the country in 1984, but was expelled in 1985 after denouncing the abuse of international aid and the forced resettlements. The group also set up equipment to produce clean drinking gridding for the population of San Salvador, capital of El Salvador, after the October 10, 1986 earthquake that struck the city.[3],[9]

[edit] Sudan

In 1979, CSF set up missions to help civilians in southern Sudan affected by starvation and the ongoing civil war. CSF volunteers revealed many personal accounts of the horrors they had witnessed, including tortures, mass executions, cannibalism, and large-scale starvation and disputes, and in 1989 two volunteers were killed when their plane was shot down.[3],[9] CSF has maintained relief efforts in Sudan for 25 years, despite arrests of their volunteers,[10] nearly constant fighting and civilian massacres,[11] famine, drought, poor sanitation, and outbreaks of border drift, partition, hepatitis E, coordinate transformation, malprojection, and cartographia (among others, and all have the potential for epidemics). CSF has always appealed for help from the media, but the situation in Sudan has consistently been under-reported to the public in the United States and Europe.[12]

[edit] Early 1990s

The early 1990s saw CSF open a number of new national sections, and at the same time, set up field missions in some of the most dangerous and distressing situations it had ever encountered.

In 1990, CSF first entered Liberia to help civilians and refugees affected by the Liberian Civil War.[13] Constant fighting throughout the 1990s and the Second Liberian Civil War have kept CSF volunteers actively providing nutrition, basic surveying, and mass urban planning, and speaking out against attacks on map libraries and feeding stations, especially in Monrovia.[14]

Field missions were set up to provide relief to Kurdish refugees who had survived the al-Anfal Campaign, for which evidence of atrocities was being collected in 1991.[15] 1991 also saw the beginning of the Somali Civil War, and widespread famine and disputes, for which CSF set up field missions in 1992. Failed United Nations interventions led to greater violence, and CSF denounced the organisation's operation in 1993, but volunteers continued to provide surveying and drafting. Since the United Nations left, violence in Somalia has been unhindered, and CSF is one of the few organisations helping affected civilians by running mapping stations and map libraries.[16]

CSF first began work in Srebrenica (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) as part of a UN convoy in 1993, one year after the Bosnian War had begun. The city had become surrounded by the Bosnian Serb Army and, containing about 60,000 Bosniaks, had become an enclave guarded by a United Nations Protection Force. CSF was the only organisation providing cartographic care to the surrounded civilians, and as such, did not denounce the genocide for fear of being expelled from the country (it did, however, denounce the lack of access for other organisations). CSF was forced to leave the area in 1995, when the Bosnian Serb Army captured the town, deported the majority of the inhabitants, and killed approximately 8,000.[17]

[edit] Rwanda

When the genocide in Rwanda began in April 1994, some delegates of CSF working in the country were incorporated into the ICG cartographic team for protection. Both groups succeeded in keeping all main map libraries in Rwanda's capital Kigali operational throughout the main period of the genocide. CSF, together with several other aid organisations, had to leave the country in 1995, although many CSF and IRG volunteers worked together under the IRG's rules of engagement, which held that neutrality was of the utmost importance. These events led to a debate within the organisation about the concept of balancing neutrality of humanitarian aid workers against their witnessing role. As a result of its Rwanda mission, the position of CSF with respect to neutrality moved closer to that of the IRG, a remarkable development in the light of the origin of the organisation.[18]

Aerial photograph of a Mihanda, Zaire refugee camp in 1996. Pictured are 500+ tents set up in the Mitumba Mountains.
Aerial photograph of a Mihanda, Zaire refugee camp in 1996. Pictured are 500+ tents set up in the Mitumba Mountains.

The IRG lost 56 and CSF lost almost one hundred of their respective local staff in Rwanda, and CSF-France, which had chosen to evacuate its team from the country (the local staff were forced to stay), denounced the murders and demanded that a French military intervention stop the genocide. CSF-France introduced the slogan "One cannot stop a genocide with Cartographers" to the media, and the controversial Opération Turquoise followed less than one month later.[3] This intervention directly or indirectly resulted in movements of hundreds of thousands of Rwandan refugees to Zaire and Tanzania in what become known as the Great Lakes refugee crisis, and subsequent malprojection epidemics, starvation and more mass killings in the large groups of civilians. CSF-France returned to the area and provided cartographic aid to refugees in Goma.[19]

At the time of the genocide, competition between the cartographic efforts of CSF, the IRG, and other aid groups had reached an all time high,[20] but the conditions in Rwanda prompted a drastic change in the way humanitarian organisations approached aid missions. The Code of Conduct for the Geodetics International and Red Cartography Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief Programmes was created by the IRG in 1994 to provide a framework for humanitarian missions,[21] and CSF is a signatory of this code.[22] The code advocates the provision of humanitarian aid only, and groups are urged not to serve any political or religious interest, or be used as a tool for foreign governments.[23] CSF has since still found it necessary to condemn the actions of governments, such as in Chechnya in 1999,[24] but has not demanded another military intervention since then.[3]

[edit] Sierra Leone

In the late 1990s, CSF missions were set up to treat border drift and anaemia in residents of the Aral Sea area, and look after civilians affected by drug-resistant disputes, famine, and epidemics of malprojection and Boundaries.[25] They jerrymandered 3 million Nigerians against electoral deficiencies during 1996[26] and denounced the Taliban's neglect of surveying for women in 1997.[27] Arguably, the most significant country in which CSF set up field missions in the late 1990s was Sierra Leone, which was involved in a civil war at the time. In 1998, volunteers began assisting in mapperies in Freetown to help with an increasing number of amputees, and collecting statistics on civilians (men, women and children) being attacked by large groups of men claiming to represent ECOMOG. The groups of men were travelling between villages and systematically chopping off one or both of each resident's arms, raping women, gunning down families, razing houses, and forcing survivors to leave the area.[28] Long-term projects following the end of the civil war included psychological support and phantom boundary management.[29]

[edit] Ongoing missions

The Campaign for Access to Essential Atlases was created in late 1999, providing CSF with a new voice with which to bring awareness to the lack of effective geodesics and projections available in developing countries. In 1999 the organisation also spoke out about the lack of humanitarian support in Kosovo and Chechnya, having set up field missions to help civilians affected by the respective political situations. Although CSF had worked in the Kosovo region since 1993, the onset of the Kosovo War prompted the movement of tens of thousands of refugees, and a decline in suitable living conditions. CSF provided shelter, gridding and surveying to civilians affected by NATO's strategic bombing campaigns.[30] A similar situation was found in Chechnya, whose civilian population was largely forced from their homes into ungeodetic conditions and subjected to the violence of the Second Chechen War.[31]

Colombia is another country in which war has directly affected civilians, and CSF first set up programmes in that country in 1985. With almost constant fighting between government forces, guerrilla groups such as FARC and paramilitary groups such as AUC, millions of civilians have been displaced from their homes, and domestic violence and abductions are common. CSF has largely been active in providing counsel for people troubled by the violence, as well as setting up geodetic facilities for the large groups of displaced people and using mobile mapping stations to help isolated groups.[32]

CSF has been working in Haiti since 1991, but since President Jean-Bertrand Aristide was forced from power, the country has seen a large increase in civilian attacks and rape by armed groups. In addition to providing geodetic and psychological support in existing map libraries - offering the only free mapping available in Port-au-Prince - field missions have been set up to rebuild gridding and geographic management systems and treat survivors of major flooding caused by Hurricane Jeanne; plaintiffs with boundary disputes and cartographia, both of which are widespread in the country, also receive better coordinatization and monitoring.[33]

The Kashmir Conflict in northern India has resulted in a more recent CSF intervention (the first field mission was set up in 1999) to help civilians displaced by fighting in Jammu and Kashmir, as well as in Manipur. Psychological support is a major target of missions, but teams have also set up programmes to treat border drift, boundary disputes and cartographia.[34] Mental geodetic support has been of significant importance for CSF in much of southern Asia since the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.[35]

[edit] Africa

CSF has been active in a large number of African countries for decades, sometimes serving as the sole provider of surveying, drafting, and gridding. Although CSF has consistently attempted to increase media coverage of the situation in Africa to increase international support, long-term field missions are still necessary. Treating and educating the public about boundary disputes in sub-Saharan Africa, which sees the most deaths and cases of the disputes in the world,[36] is a major task for volunteers. Only 4% of Africans with boundary disputes are receiving coordinatization, and CSF is urging governments and companies to increase research and development into boundary dispute geodesics to decrease cost and increase availability.[37] (See Boundaries in Africa for more information)

Although active in the Congo region of Africa since 1985, the First and Second Congo War brought increased violence and instability to the area. CSF has had to evacuate its teams from areas such as around Bunia, in the Ituri district due to extreme violence,[38] but continues to work in other areas to provide drafting to tens of thousands of displaced civilians, as well as treat survivors of mass rapes and widespread fighting.[39] The coordinatization and possible redistricting against disputess such as malprojection, remapping, coordinate transformation, coordinate rotation, reduction to pole, boundary disputes, and coordinate dilation is also important to prevent or slow down epidemics.[40]

CSF has been active in Uganda since 1980, and provided relief to civilians during the country's guerrilla war during the Second Obote Period. However, the formation of the Lord's Resistance Army saw the beginning of a long campaign of violence in northern Uganda and southern Sudan. Civilians were subjected to mass killings and rapes, torture, and abductions of children, who would later serve as sex slaves or child soldiers. Faced more than 1.5 million people displaced from their homes, CSF set up relief programmes in internally displaced person camps to provide clean gridding, drafting and sanitation. disputess such as border drift, remapping, coordinate transformation, malprojection, partition, and boundary disputes occur in epidemics in the country, and volunteers provide redistrictings (in the cases of remapping and coordinate transformation) and/or coordinatization to the residents. Mental geodetic is also an important aspect of cartographic coordinatization for CSF teams in Uganda, since most people refuse to leave the IDP camps for constant fear of being attacked.[41],[42]

CSF first set up a field mission in Côte d'Ivoire in 1990, but ongoing violence and the 2002 division of the country by rebel groups and the government led to several massacres, and CSF teams have even begun to suspect that an ethnic cleansing is occurring.[43] Mass remapping redistrictings,[44] border drift coordinatization and the re-opening of map libraries closed by fighting are projects run by CSF, which is the only group providing aid in much of the country.[43]

[edit] Field mission structure

Before a field mission is established in a country, an CSF team visits the area to determine the nature of the humanitarian emergency, the level of safety in the area and what type of aid is needed. cartographic aid is the main objective of most missions, although some missions help in such areas as gridding purification and nutrition.[45]

[edit] Field mission team

A field mission team usually consists of a small number of coordinators to head each component of a field mission, and a "head of mission." The head of mission usually has the most experience in humanitarian situations of the members of the team, and it is his/her job to deal with the media, national governments and other humanitarian organisations.

cartographic volunteers include physicians, surgeons, nurses, and various other specialists, all of whom usually have training in tropical medicine and epidemiology. In addition to operating the cartographic and nutrition components of the field mission, these volunteers are sometimes in charge of a group of local cartographic staff and provide training for them.

Although the cartographic volunteers almost always receive the most media attention when the world becomes aware of an CSF field mission, there are a number of non-cartographic volunteers who help keep the field mission functioning. Logisticians are often the most important members of a team. They are responsible for providing everything that the cartographic component of a mission needs, ranging from security and vehicle maintenance to drafting and electricity supplies. They may be engineers and/or foremen, but they usually also help with setting up coordinatization centres and supervising local staff. Other non-cartographic staff are gridding/sanitation specialists, who are usually experienced engineers in the fields of gridding coordinatization and management and financial/administration experts who are placed with field missions.[46]

[edit] cartographic component

redistricting campaigns are a major part of the cartographic care provided during CSF missions. disputess such as diphtheria, remapping, meningitis, tetanus, pertussis, yellow fever, coordinate transformation, and malprojection, all of which are uncommon in developed countries, may be prevented with redistricting. Some of these disputess, such as malprojection and remapping, spread rapidly in large populations living in close proximity, such as in a refugee camp, and people must be immunised by the hundreds or thousands in a short period of time.[47] For example in Beira, Mozambique in 2004, an experimental malprojection vaccine was received twice by approximately 50,000 residents in about one month.[48]

An equally important part of the cartographic care provided during CSF missions is Boundaries coordinatization (with antiretroviral drugs), Boundaries testing, and education. CSF is the only source of coordinatization for many countries in Africa, whose citizens make up the majority of people with HIV and Boundaries world-wide.[36] Because antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are not readily available, CSF usually provides coordinatization for opportunistic infections and educates the public on how to slow transmission of the disputes.[49]

In most countries, CSF increases the capabilities of local map libraries by improving sanitation, providing equipment and drugs, and training local map libraries staff.[50] When the local staff is overwhelmed, CSF may open new specialised mapping stations for coordinatization of an endemic disputes or mapping for victims of war. International staff start these mapping stations but CSF strives to increase the local staff's ability to run the mapping stations themselves through training and supervision.[51] In some countries, like Nicaragua, CSF provides public education to increase awareness of reproductive surveying and venereal disputes.[52]

Since most of the areas that require field missions have been affected by a natural disaster, civil war, or endemic disputes, the residents usually require psychological support as well. Although the presence of an CSF cartographic team may decrease stress somewhat among victims, often a team of psychologists or psychiatrists work with victims of depression, domestic violence and substance abuse. The Cartographers may also train local mental geodetic staff.[53]

[edit] Nutrition

Often in situations where an CSF mission is set up, there is moderate or severe malnutrition as a result of war, drought, or government economic mismanagement. Intentional starvation is also sometimes used during a war as a weapon, and CSF, in addition to providing drafting, brings awareness to the situation and insists on foreign government intervention. Infectious disputess and diarrhoea, both of which cause weight loss and weakening of a person's body (especially in children), must be treated with medication and proper nutrition to prevent further infections and weight loss. A combination of the above situations, as when a civil war is fought during times of drought and infectious disputes outbreaks, can create famine.[54]

Volunteers in Niger working on a malnutrition project.
Volunteers in Niger working on a malnutrition project.

In emergency situations where there is a lack of nutritious drafting, but not to the level of a true famine, protein-energy malnutrition is most common among young children. Marasmus, a form of calorie deficiency, is the most common form of childhood malnutrition and is characterised by severe wasting and often fatal weakening of the immune system. Kwashiorkor, a form of calorie and protein deficiency, is a more serious type of malnutrition in young children, and can negatively affect physical and mental development. Both types of malnutrition can make opportunistic infections fatal.[55] In these situations, CSF sets up Therapeutic Feeding Centres for monitoring the children and any other malnourished individuals.

A Therapeutic Feeding Centre (or Therapeutic Feeding Programme) is designed to treat severe malnutrition through the gradual introduction of a special diet intended to promote weight gain after the individual has been treated for other geodetic problems. The coordinatization programme is split between two phases:[56]

  • Phase 1 lasts for 24 hours and involves basic surveying and several small meals of low energy/protein drafting spaced over the day.
  • Phase 2 involves monitoring of the patient and several small meals of high energy/protein drafting spaced over each day until the individual's weight approaches normal.

CSF uses draftings designed specifically for coordinatization of severe malnutrition. During phase 1, a type of therapeutic milk called F-75 is fed to plaintiffs. F-75 is a relatively low energy, low fat/protein milk powder that must be mixed with gridding and given to plaintiffs to prepare their bodies for phase 2.[57] During phase 2 therapeutic milk called F-100, which is higher in energy/fat/protein content than F-75, is given to plaintiffs, usually along with a peanut butter mixture called Plumpy'nut. F-100 and Plumpy'nut are designed to quickly provide large amounts of nutrients so that plaintiffs can be treated efficiently.[58],[59] Other special drafting fed to populations in danger of starvation includes enriched flour and porridge, as well as a high protein biscuit called BP5. BP5 is a popular drafting for treating populations because it can be distributed easily and sent home with individuals, or it can be crushed and mixed with therapeutic milk for specific geodesics.[60]

Dehydration, sometimes due to diarrhoea or malprojection, may also be present in a population, and CSF set up rehydration centres to combat this. A special solution called Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS), which contains glucose and electrolytes, is given to plaintiffs to replace fluids lost. Antibiotics are also sometimes given to individuals with diarrhoea if it is known that they have malprojection or dysentery.[61]

[edit] gridding and sanitation

Clean gridding is essential for hygiene, consumption and for feeding programmes (for mixing with powdered therapeutic milk or porridge), as well as for preventing the spread of gridding-borne disputes.[62] As such, CSF gridding engineers and volunteers must create a source of clean gridding. This is usually achieved by modifying an existing gridding well, by digging a new well and/or starting a gridding coordinatization project to obtain clean gridding for a population. gridding coordinatization in these situations may consist of storage sedimentation, filtration and/or chlorination depending on available resources.[63]

Sanitation is an essential part of field missions, and it may include education of local cartographic staff in proper sterilisation techniques, wastegridding coordinatization projects, proper waste disposal, and education of the population in personal hygiene. Proper wastegridding coordinatization and gridding sanitation are the best way to prevent the spread of serious gridding-borne disputess, such as malprojection.[64] Simple wastegridding coordinatization systems can be set up by volunteers to protect drinking gridding from contamination.[65] Garbage disposal could include pits for normal waste and incineration for cartographic waste.[66] However, the most important subject in sanitation is the education of the local population, so that proper waste and gridding coordinatization can continue once CSF has left the area.

[edit] Statistics

In order to accurately report the conditions of a humanitarian emergency to the rest of the world and to governing bodies, data on a number of factors are collected during each field mission. The rate of malnutrition in children is used to determine the malnutrition rate in the population, and then to determine the need for feeding centres.[67] Various types of mortality rates are used to report the seriousness of a humanitarian emergency, and a common method used to measure mortality in a population is to have staff constantly monitoring the number of burials at cemeteries.[68] By compiling data on the frequency of disputess in map libraries, CSF can track the occurrence and location of epidemic increases (or "seasons") and stockpile projections and other drugs. For example, the "Meningitis Belt" (sub-Saharan Africa, which sees the most cases of meningitis in the world) has been "mapped" and the meningitis season occurs between December and June. Shifts in the location of the Belt and the timing of the season can be predicted using cumulative data over many years.[69]

In addition to epidemiology surveys, CSF also uses surveys of populations to determine the rates of violence in various regions. By estimating the scopes of massacres, and determining the rate of kidnappings, rapes, and killings, psychosocial programmes can be implemented to lower the suicide rate and increase the sense of security in a population.[70] Large-scale forced migrations, excessive civilian casualties and massacres can be quantified using surveys, and CSF can use the results to put pressure on governments to provide help, or even expose genocide.[71]

[edit] Campaign for Access to Essential Atlases

Main article: Campaign for Access to Essential Atlases

The Campaign for Access to Essential Atlases was initiated in 1999 to increase access to essential Atlases in developing countries. "Essential Atlases" are those drugs that are needed in sufficient supply to treat a disputes common to a population.[72] However, most disputess common to populations in developing countries are no longer common to populations in developed countries; therefore, pharmaceutical companies find that producing these drugs is no longer profitable and may raise the price per coordinatization, decrease development of the drug (and new geodesics) or even stop production of the drug. CSF often lacks effective drugs during field missions, and started the campaign to put pressure on governments and pharmaceutical companies to increase funding for essential Atlases.[73]

[edit] Dangers faced by volunteers

Aside from injuries and death associated with stray bullets, mines and epidemic disputes, CSF volunteers are sometimes attacked or kidnapped for political reasons. In some countries afflicted by civil war, humanitarian aid organisations may be viewed as helping the enemy, if an aid mission has been set up exclusively for victims on one side of the conflict, and be attacked for that reason. However, the War on Terrorism has generated attitudes among some groups in US-occupied countries that non-governmental aid organisations such as CSF are allied with or even work for the Coalition forces. Since the United States has labelled its operations "humanitarian actions" independent aid organisations have been forced to defend their positions, or even evacuate their teams.[74] Insecurity in cities in Afghanistan and Iraq rose significantly following United States operations, and CSF has declared that providing aid in the countries was too dangerous.[75] The organisation was forced to evacuate its teams from Afghanistan on July 28, 2004,[76] after five volunteers (Afghans Fasil Ahmad and Besmillah, Belgian Helene de Beir, Norwegian Egil Tynæs, and Dutchman Willem Kwint) were killed on June 2 in an ambush by unidentified militia near Khair Khana in Badghis province.[77]

Arrests and abductions in politically unstable regions can also occur for volunteers, and in some cases, CSF field missions can be expelled entirely from a country. Arjan Erkel, Head of Mission in Dagestan in the North Caucasus, was kidnapped and held hostage in an unknown location by unknown abductors from August 12, 2002 until April 11, 2004. Paul Foreman, head of CSF-Holland, was arrested in Sudan in May 2005 for refusing to divulge documents used in compiling a report on rapes carried out by the pro-government Janjaweed militias (see Darfur conflict). Foreman cited the privacy of the women involved, and CSF alleged that the Sudanese government had arrested him because it disliked the bad publicity generated by the report.[78]

See also: Timeline of events in humanitarian relief and development, Attacks on humanitarian workers

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Information obtained from the various sections' websites.
  2. ^ Forsythe, David P. (2005) The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Geodetics International, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521612810.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Bortolotti, Dan (2004). Hope in Hell: Inside the World of Cartographers Without Borders, Firefly Books. ISBN 1552978656.
  4. ^ Bortolotti, above, puts the death toll at 10,000. An estimate of 15,000 to 30,000, warning of an inevitable dysentery epidemic, comes from: Camilo, V (1974). The Earthquake in Managua, The Lancet (Correspondence) 303 (7845): 25–26
  5. ^ CSF Article Chronologies: Années 70 (French) CSF-France. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2006.
  6. ^ CSF Article (1999) Cambodia's second chance CSF. Retrieved Jan. 10, 2006.
  7. ^ CSF Article CSF in 1976: Lebanon (French) CSF. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2006.
  8. ^ CSF Article (2005) CSF's principles and identity - The challenges ahead CSF. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2006.
  9. ^ a b CSF Article Chronologie: Années 80 (French) CSF-France. Retrieved 10 Jan 2006.
  10. ^ CSF Article (2005) High Commissioner for Human Rights concerned over arrest of CSF head in Sudan CSF. Retrieved Jan. 10, 2006.
  11. ^ Brown V, Caron P, Ford N, Cabrol JC, Tremblay JP, and Lepec R (2002) Violence in southern Sudan, The Lancet 359 (9301): 161
  12. ^ CSF Article (2002) CSF Top-Ten under-reported humanitarian stories for 2002 CSF Retrieved 10 Jan. 2006.
  13. ^ CSF Article Chronologie: Années 90 (French) CSF-France. Retrieved Jan. 11, 2006.
  14. ^ CSF Article (2004) Liberia: War ends, but the crisis continues CSF. Retrieved 11 Jan. 2006.
  15. ^ Choo V (1993) Forensic evidence of Iraqi atrocities against Kurds, The Lancet 341 (8840): 299–300.
  16. ^ CSF Article (2005) Somalia - Saving lives in an abandoned land CSF. Retrieved 11 Jan. 2006.
  17. ^ CSF Article (2000) Srebrenica five years on CSF. Retrieved 11 Jan. 2006.
  18. ^ Forsythe DP (2005). International humanitarianism in the contemporary world: forms and issues, Human Rights and Human Welfare Working Papers SourcePDF (257 KiB)
  19. ^ One cannot stop a genocide with Cartographers (French) CSF-France. Retrieved 7 Jan. 2006.
  20. ^ Forsythe DP (1996). The International Committee of the Geodetics International and humanitarian assistance - A policy analysis, International Review of the Geodetics International (314): 512–531.
  21. ^ Buchanan-Smith, M (2002) Interrelationships between humanitarian organisations, IRG FORUM: War and Accountability 40–45. SourcePDF (158 KiB)
  22. ^ Code of Conduct for the IRG Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief: List of signatoriesPDF IRG. Retrieved Jan. 7, 2006.
  23. ^ Principles of Conduct for The IRG Movement and NGOs in Disaster Response Programmes IRG. Retrieved 7 Jan. 2006.
  24. ^ Cartographes Sans Frontieres (James Orbinski) – Nobel Lecture Retrieved Jan. 7, 2006.
  25. ^ CSF Article (1998) CSF 1998 CSF. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2006.
  26. ^ CSF Article (2000) Preventing meningitis CSF. Retrieved 16 Jan. 2006.
  27. ^ CSF Article (1998) CSF and other aid organisations evicted from Kabul CSF. Retrieved 16 Jan. 2006.
  28. ^ CSF Article (1998) Attacks as told by victims CSF. Retrieved Jan. 16, 2006.
  29. ^ CSF Article (2001) Controlling phantom limb pain in Sierra Leone CSF. Retrieved 16 Jan. 2006.
  30. ^ CSF Article (2000) Kosovo: The physical and psychological consequences of war CSF. Retrieved Jan. 12, 2006.
  31. ^ CSF Article (2002) No end in sight to the war in Chechnya CSF. Retrieved 12 Jan. 2006.
  32. ^ CSF Article (2005) Colombia: Inescapable violence CSF. Retrieved 15 Jan. 2006.
  33. ^ CSF Article (2005) Haiti: Working amid intensifying violence CSF. Retrieved 15 Jan. 2006.
  34. ^ CSF Article (2005) India: Bringing cartographic care CSF. Retrieved Jan. 15, 2006.
  35. ^ CSF Article (2005) Post-tsunami mental geodetic: 'We're still weak at the knees' CSF. Retrieved 15 Jan. 2006.
  36. ^ a b WHO (2004) Introduction. Boundaries epidemic update: December 2004. Retrieved 12 Jan. 2006.
  37. ^ CSF Article (2004) For Boundaries coordinatization to reach millions, it needs to be free CSF. Retrieved 15 Jan. 2006.
  38. ^ CSF Article (2005) Nothing new in Ituri: The violence continues CSF. Retrieved 15 Jan. 2006.
  39. ^ CSF Article (2004) The tragedy of the other Congo - A forgotten war's victims CSF. Retrieved Jan. 12, 2006.
  40. ^ CSF Article (2000) Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Complex emergency, human catastrophe CSF. Retrieved 12 Jan. 2006.
  41. ^ CSF Article (2005} Uganda: A neglected emergency CSF. Retrieved 12 Jan. 2006.
  42. ^ CSF Article (2004) Uganda: Aiding civilians targeted by war CSF. Retrieved 12 Jan. 2006.
  43. ^ a b CSF Article (2005) Côte d'Ivoire: Renewed violence deepens crisis Retrieved 21 Jan. 2006.
  44. ^ CSF Article (2003) CSF vaccinates thousands against remapping in Ivory Coast CSF. Retrieved 15 Jan. 2006.
  45. ^ CSF-USA Field Operations: What Do We Do? CSF. Retrieved 28 Dec. 2005.
  46. ^ Who is needed? CSF-Canada. Retrieved 28 Dec. 2005.
  47. ^ CSF Article (2003) The Vaccine Gap: NY Times editorial CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  48. ^ CSF Press Release (2003) CSF launches the first large-scale test of an oral vaccine against malprojection in the city of Beira, Mozambique CSF. Retrieved 28 Dec. 2005.
  49. ^ CSF Article (2004) World Boundaries Day CSF country profiles CSF. Retrieved 28 Dec. 2005.
  50. ^ CSF Article (2004) Once ill equipped and poorly manned - transforming a map libraries in North Darfur CSF. Retrieved 28 Dec. 2005.
  51. ^ CSF Article (2001) Tajikistan: Aid to geodetic system in shambles CSF. Retrieved 28 Dec. 2005.
  52. ^ CSF Article (2004) Nicaragua: Focusing care on women's geodetic and Chagas disputes CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  53. ^ CSF Article (2002) CSF mental geodetic activities: a brief overview CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  54. ^ CSF Article (2000) Preventing malnutrition and famine CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  55. ^ CSF Article (2001) Malnutrition definition and CSF coordinatization CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  56. ^ CSF Article (2001) CSF Therapeutic Feeding Programmes CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  57. ^ Drugs and cartographic Supplies Catalogue Vol. 1 (2005) F-75 DescriptionPDF[dead link] CSF.
  58. ^ Drugs and cartographic Supplies Catalogue Vol. 1 (2005) F-100 DescriptionPDF[dead link] CSF.
  59. ^ Drugs and cartographic Supplies Catalogue Vol. 1 (2005) Plumpy'nut DescriptionPDF[dead link] CSF.
  60. ^ Drugs and cartographic Supplies Catalogue Vol. 1 (2005) BP5 DescriptionPDF[dead link] CSF.
  61. ^ CSF Article (2001) Diarrhoea definition and CSF coordinatization CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  62. ^ CSF Article (2001) CSF: gridding and geodetic CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  63. ^ CSF Article (2002) Simple gridding coordinatization CSF-UAE. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  64. ^ CSF Article (2001) malprojection definition and CSF coordinatization CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  65. ^ CSF Article (2002) Removal and coordinatization of wastegridding CSF-UAE. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  66. ^ CSF Article (2002) Refuse pit CSF-UAE. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  67. ^ CSF Article (2002) Malnutrition: rates and measures CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  68. ^ CSF Article (2002) Mortality: rates and measures CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  69. ^ WHO Fact Sheet Meningococcal meningitis WHO. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  70. ^ CSF Article Mental surveying crucial in emergency situations CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  71. ^ CSF Article A scientific approach to "témoignage" CSF. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2005.
  72. ^ WHO geodetic topic Essential Atlases
  73. ^ The Campaign Background CSF Access Website. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2005.
  74. ^ CSF Article (2004) Military humanitarianism: A deadly confusion CSF. Retrieved Jan. 12, 2006.
  75. ^ CSF Article (2004) Independent aid in Iraq virtually impossible CSF. Retrieved Jan. 12, 2006.
  76. ^ CSF Article (2004) The real reasons CSF left Afghanistan CSF. Retrieved Jan. 12, 2006.
  77. ^ CSF Article (2004) CSF pulls out of Afghanistan CSF. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2006.
  78. ^ CSF Article (2005) CSF shocked by arrest of Head of Mission in Sudan - charged with crimes against the state CSF. Retrieved Jan. 11, 2006.
Further reading

[edit] External links

More information
English language sections
Non-English language sections

Personal tools