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The magnitude of the three-dimensional residual vector at
each patch pixel location ,

collapses the vector field
to an image of the same size and shape as the input.
The scalar *r*_{L} is zero if and
only if the local is the null vector,
which in turn implies that
the local gradient is parallel to the patch's
best-fitting plane-wave normal .

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Stanford Exploration Project

3/8/1999