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REFERENCES

Copernicus, N., 1543,1974, Nicolaus Copernicus gesamtausgabe, de revolutionibus, faksimile des manuskriptes:, volume 1 Gerstenberg, Gebrüder, GmbH&Co., Rathausstr 18-20, D-31134 Hildesheim, Postf 10055, D-31105 Hildesheim, Tele (05121)106-450 Fax 106-498.

Flamsteed, J., 1725, Historiae coelestis Britannicae:, volume 3 H. Meere, London.

Gauss, C. F., 1796-1814,1985, Mathematische tagebuch 1796-1814:, Ostwalds Klassiker der Exakten Wissenshaffen, Bd. 256 Deutsch, Harri, GmbH, Gräfstr 47 u.51, D-60486 Frankfurt, Tele (069)775021-23 Fax 106-498.

Gauss, C. F., 1801, Disquisitiones arithmeticae: Gerh. Fleischer, Leipzig.

Hevelius, J., 1969, Machinæ coelestis pars prior; Organographiam:, volume 1 Zentralantiquariat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Leipzig.

Thomson, J., 1748, The castle of indolence: An allegorical poem. Written in imitation of Spenser.: Andrew Millar, over against Catherine Street, in the Strand (London).

Wallis, C. G., 1995, On the revolutions of heavenly spheres by Nicolaus Copernicus:, Great Minds Series Prometheus Books, 59 John Glenn Drive, Amherst, New York 14228-2197.

Wright, T., 1750, An original theory or new hypothesis of the universe: H. Chapelle, Grosvenor Street, London.

A

From page 64 of Thomas Wright's text:

PLATE XXVI.

Represents a Creation of a double Construction, where a superior Order of Bodies C, may be imagined to be circumscribed by the former one A, as posessing a more eminent Seat, and nearer the supream Presence, and consequently of a more perfect Nature. Lastly,

PLATE XXVII.

Represents such a Section, and Segments of the same, as I hope will give you a perfect Idea of what I mean by such a Theory.

Fig. I. is a corresponding Section of the Part at A, in Fig. 2. whose versed Sine[*] is equal to half the Thickness of the starry Vortice AC, or BA. Now I say, by supposing the Thickness of this Shell, I. you may imagine the middle Semi-Chord[*] AD, or AE, to be nearly 6; and consequently thus in a like regular Distribution of the Stars, there must of course be at least three Times as many to be seen in this Direction of the Sine, or Semi-chord AE, itself, than in that of the semi-versed Sine[*] AC, or where near the Direction of the Radius of the Space G. Q.E.D.

B

Translation from Wallis 1995:

But since segment EA is less than a semicircle,

the centre of the epicycle will not be in it but in the remainder ABCE. Therefore let K be the centre, and let DMKL be drawn through both apsides[*], and let L be the highest apsis and M the lowest. Now, by Euclid, III, 36, it is clear that
rect. AD, DE = rect. LD, DM.
Now since LM, the diameter of the circle--to which DM is added in a straight line--is bisected at K, then
rect. LD,DM+sq. KM=sq. DK.
Therefore
DK

[begin manuscript page]
=1,148,556
where KL=100,000;
and on that account,
LK=8,706
where DKL=100,000
and LK is the radius of the epicycle. Having done that, draw KNO perpendicular to AD. Since KD, DE, and EA have their ratios to one another given in the parts whereof LK=100,000, and since
NE= 0 1/0 2 AE=73,893:
therefore, by addition,
DEN=1,146,577.
But in triangle DKN
side DK is given,
side ND is given,
and
angle N=$90^\circ$;
on that account, at the centre,
angle NKD=$86^\circ \,38 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$
and
arc MEO=$86^\circ \,38 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$.
Hence,
arc LAO=$180^\circ -$ arc NEO=$93^\circ \,21 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$.
Now
arc OA= 0 1/0 2 arc AOE=$47^\circ \,38 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$;
and
arc LA=arc LAO-arc OA=$45^\circ \,43'$,
which is the distance--or position of anomaly--of the moon from the highest apsis of the epicycle at the first eclipse. But
arc AB=$110^\circ \,21'$.
Accordingly, by subtraction,
arc LB=$64^\circ \,38'$,
which is the anomaly at the second eclipse. And by addition
arc LBC=$146^\circ \,14'$,
where the third eclipse falls. Now it will also be clear that since
angle DKN=$86^\circ \,38 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$,
where 4 rt. angles=$360^\circ$,
angle KDN=$90^\circ -$ angle DKN=$3^\circ \,21 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$;
and that is the additosubtraction which the anomaly adds at the first eclipse.
Now
angle ADB = $7^\circ \,42'$;
therefore, by subtraction,
angle LDB=$4^\circ \,20 \mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}'$,
which arc LB subtracts from the regular movement of the moon at the second eclipse. And since
angle BDC=$1^\circ \,21'$,
and therefore, by subtraction,
angle CDM=$2^\circ \,49'$,
the subtractive additosubtraction caused by arc LBC at the third eclipse; therefore the mean position of the moon, i.e., of the centre K, at the first eclipse was $9^\circ \,53'$ of Scorpio, because its apparent position was at $13^\circ \,15'$ of Scorpio; and that was the number of degrees of the sun diametrically opposite in Taurus. And thus the mean movement of the moon at the second eclipse was at $29 {\mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 2}}}^\circ$ of Aries; and in the third eclipse, at $17^\circ \,4'$ of Virgo. Moreover, the regular distances of the moon from the sun were $177^\circ \,33'$ for the first eclipse, $182^\circ \,47'$ for the second, $185^\circ \,20'$ for the last. So Ptolemy.

Following his example, let us now proceed to a third trinity of eclipses of the moon, which were painstakingly observed by us. The first was in the year of Our Lord 1511, after October 6th had passed. The moon began to be eclipsed 1 0 1/0 8 equal hours before midnight, and was completely restored 2 0 1/0 3 hours after midnight, and in this way the middle of the eclipse was at 0 7/0 12 hours after midnight--the morning following being the Nones[*] of October, the $7^{\mbox{\scriptsize th}}$. There was a total eclipse, while the sun was in $22^\circ \,25'$ of Libra but by regular movement at $24^\circ \,13'$ of Libra.

We observed the second eclipse in the year of Our Lord 1522, in the month of September, after the lapse of five days. The eclipse was total, and began 0 2/0 5 equal hours before midnight, but its midpoint occurred 1 0 1/0 3 hours after midnight, which the $6^{\mbox{\scriptsize th}}$day followed--the $8^{\mbox{\scriptsize th}}$ day before the Ides of September. The sun was in the $22 {\mbox{\kern.1em
\raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 1}\kern-.1em
/\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 5}}}^\circ$ of Virgo but, according to its regular movement, in $23^\circ \,59'$ of Virgo.

We observed the third in the year of Our Lord 1523, at the close of August $25.^{\mbox{\scriptsize th}}$ It began 2 0 4/0 5 hours after midnight, was a total eclipse, and the midtime was 4 0 5/0 12 hours after the midnight prior to the $7^{\mbox{\scriptsize th}}$ day before the Kalends of September. The sun was in $11^\circ \,21'$ of Virgo but according to its mean movement at $13^\circ \,2'$ of Virgo.

And here it is also manifest that the distance between the true positions of the sun and the moon from the first eclipse to the second was $329^\circ
\,47'$, but from the second to the third it was $349^\circ \,9'$.Now the time from the first eclipse to the second was 10 equal years 337 days 0 3/0 4 hours according to apparent time, but by corrected equal time 0 4/0 5 hours. From the second to the third there were 354 days 3 hours 5 minutes; but according to equal time 3 hours 9 minutes.
During the first interval the mean movement of the sun and the moon measured as one--not counting the complete circles--amounted to $334^\circ \,47'$, and the movement of anomaly to $250^\circ \,36'$, subtracting approximately $5^\circ$ from the regular movement; in the second interval

[end manuscript page]
the mean movement of the sun and moon was $346^\circ \,10'$; and the movement of anomaly was $306^\circ \,43'$, adding $2^\circ \,59'$ to the mean movement.

C The original text in Canto II, Verse III of James Thomson's The Castle of Indolence reads:

I care not, Fortune, what you me deny:
You cannot rob me of free Nature's Grace;
You cannot shut the Windows of the Sky,
Through which Aurora shews her brightening Face;
You cannot bar my constant Feet to trace
The Woods and Lawns, by living Stream, at Eve:
Let Health my Nerves and finer Fibres brace,
And I their Toys to the great Children leave;
Of Fancy, Reason, Virtue, nought can me bereave.

D Jon Claerbout's dedication remarks:

Most of you know me as the most aggressive proponent of this skylight. If you were slow to make your pledge, you REALLY know me as an aggressive advocate.

I'd like to introduce you to a few other people who also conspired to get us this skylight.


  George Thompson -- spotted the architects
		 Dudley Kenworthy 		 --  knew how to make good things happen
		 Julie Hardin 		 -- CAN-DO attitude, transmit ideas to architects.

I asked each of the SEP PhD graduates to contribute. 90The Stanford development office was amazed. Our rate of return is unprecedented.

Not only SEP PhD graduates contributed, but faculty, Biondo Biondi, Jerry Harris, Simon Klemperer, and Lynn Orr and about half of the students living up here contributed. Even our administrative secretaries contributed.

And all your contributions were generous contributions. 17 of you contributed $1000 or more. 35 of you contributed $500 or more. 52 of you contributed $200 or more. Many current students gave a week's pay.

Of course you know the reason why. This place was a dungeon in the sky, and you all knew it. Most of you recall walking down the stairwells, not knowing whether you would emerge into sun or rain, light or dark.

Years ago we ALWAYS went outdoors for lunch, even when it rained. With El Nino this year, we had many January lunches right here where we stand. It was delightful, as you will soon see.

In years gone by, I felt the need to apologize to our new students and visitors for the quality of our quarters. I felt cheated when the Geologists and Petroleum Engineers aced us out of the new Cecil Green building. But no more. Soon you will see that we now have an excellent home.

So I thank you again, for your generous contributions and, on behalf of many future generations, I express to you our heartfelt thanks.

Marie Prucha will recite a poem she has prepared for this occasion. Then we will proceed with the unveiling.

Thanks to the many donors, both named and anonymous, whose generous contributions made this skylight possible.

Fiat Lux

-- Genesis 1:3

Dedicated this Seventeenth day of July in the year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Ninety Eight.


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Next: About this document ... Up: Levin: The History of Previous: An Invitation
Stanford Exploration Project
8/21/1998