Next: Datuming operator Up: Wave equation datuming Previous: Wave equation datuming

## Forward modeling operator

In forward modeling, the wavefield recorded at each geophone along an irregular surface is the wavefield propagated up to the depth level where the geophones are located. It is necessary to stop the wavefield propagation after recording because the reflection coefficient at the surface is almost -1. To do so, I formulate the forward modeling operator by propagating the wavefield upward with a filter between extrapolation steps to stop the wavefield propagation where it is recorded. Then all wave fields from all depth levels where the geophones are located are summed together to produce the wavefield along the irregular surface. In order to explain the algorithm clearly and schematically, I use a simple topography model that has only eight geophone groups on an irregular surface, as illustrated in Figure .

 syngeometry Figure 1 Synthetic surface recording geometry. Solid squares represent geophone location on an undulating surface.

Figure  schematically describes the forward modeling algorithm for the simple model. Wi represents upward extrapolation at the i-th depth level and F1, F2, and F3 are spatial filters for grabbing the wavefield where the geophones are located at the corresponding depth levels. The operators I-F3 and I-F2-F3 in Figure  stop propagating the wavefield at the locations where it is recorded below or at the corresponding depth level and keep propagating the wavefield at the locations where it is not yet recorded. Each small rectangle in Figure  represents an abstract vector that contains wave fields at the corresponding space location. The wavefield along the irregular surface is obtained by summing the wave fields that are grabbed at the various depth levels.

tpfrdschm
Figure 2
Forward modeling scheme: the schematic diagram for forward depth extrapolation when the surface is not flat. Wi represents the upward extrapolation operator at the i-th depth level. F1, F2, and F3 are spatial filters shown in the text, and I is the identity matrix.

The forward modeling scheme shown in Figure  can be generalized algebraically, if we divide the topography into z levels, as follows:

 (61)

 (62)

 (63)
where
 (64)

In equation (), d0 and dz are wave fields on the irregular surface and the datum level, respectively. The extrapolation operator E is followed by the spatial filter G at every depth level. We can see that the upward extrapolation operator Wi is applied to the wavefield that does not arrive at the surface because the operator Ki-1 removes the wavefield if it has arrived at any previous depth level. All wave fields that arrive at the surface are saved by the operator Fi-1 for the final output. If a datum is located in the subsurface instead of at the surface, the operators Ki should not be used so that the wavefield keep propagating through. The operator Ki described in this appendix is a crude type of transmission coefficient. In order to implement the operator Ki more correctly, its diagonal elements should be the transmission coefficient according to the property of the interface and the incidence angle of wavefield instead of 1 or . However such a rigorous implementation of the transmission coefficient is not practical since it requires exhaustive ray tracing to find the incidence angle. It is generally accepted that the transmission coefficient is 1 on the interface between two solids and on the interface between the solid and the air.

For the simple geometry shown in Figure , F1, F2, and F3 are simply diagonal matrices whose elements are 1 where the geophones are located and elsewhere. Thus, their diagonal elements are as follows: The operator Wi in equation () can be any extrapolation scheme including the Kirchhoff, phase-shift, split-step, or finite-difference method. If we use the phase-shift extrapolation algorithm for Wi, we need an additional inverse Fourier transform in every extrapolation step because the operator G is in the space domain. However, all the other algorithms, such as the Kirchhoff, split-step, and finite-difference methods, do not need any additional computation, with the exception of the operation by G, which is the multiplication of the extrapolated wavefield by the zero/one filter.

Next: Datuming operator Up: Wave equation datuming Previous: Wave equation datuming
Stanford Exploration Project
2/5/2001