The first example is a constant velocity model of 2.0 km/s and dimensions
of 6 km on a side. The first known source position is at = 0.0 km, and
the second known source position is at = 6.0 km, which represents
a very sparse traveltime table spatial separation of 6 km. (Of course, for
constant velocity and *v*(*z*) models, the traveltimes depend only on offset
and depth, and are independent of lateral source position. In this regard,
the comment on sparse sampling is relevant only in terms of interpolation,
and is not relevant to what I would actually do in practice!)
Their respective
traveltime fields and are plotted in Figure .
The horizontal and vertical traveltime gradient fields at are denoted as
and respectively, and are plotted in Figure .
The horizontal and vertical traveltime gradient fields at are denoted as
and respectively, and are plotted in Figure .

The interpolated traveltime field
at = 3.0 km is plotted in the top panel of Figure , and
the traveltime gradients and are plotted in Figure
. The relative interpolation traveltime error is
contoured in the lower panel of Figure . The contour farthest
from the desired source position at 3.0 km has a value of 1%, and increases
to 10% relative error as you move in toward the source position, in
1% contour value increments.
In theory, this example should be error-free since the terms
are given *exactly* by (8) in a constant velocity medium.
For this example, the interpolated traveltimes are
accurate to within 1% relative error, my rule of thumb requirement, over
most of the subsurface space, using a sparse shot interval of 6 km.
However, there is evidence of some small numerical inaccuracy and a
resulting tendency of singularity right at the source position, where
the values change rapidly and are therefore most sensitive to error.
Hence, in more general velocity models, we should expect instability near the
source region.

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

11/17/1997