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# THE PHASE SHIFT PLUS INTERPOLATION ALGORITHM

The derivation of the Phase Shift Plus Interpolation (PSPI) algorithm starts with the scalar wave equation
 (1)
where p=p(x,z,t) is the pressure field and v=v(x,z) is the earth velocity.

The pressure field p(x,z,t) is a finite function and can be therefore expressed as a double Fourier series
 (2)

Substituting the equation (2) in equation (1) we obtain

which after considering only the equation inside the square parenthesis becomes
 (3)
valid for all the values of kx and .The problem is that in this form, the x coordinate in the pressure field is Fourier transformed and there is no direct correspondence between a point in the medium of coordinates (x,z), the velocity v(x,z), and the corresponding value of p(x,z,t) at that location.

For a laterally invariant velocity and small values of dz, we can consider the velocity constant for a thin depth interval. We write
 (4)
where kz is constant for two given values of kx and .Equation (3) becomes an ordinary differential equation
 (5)
which has the analytic solution
 (6)
Using equation (5) to downward extrapolate the wave field in laterally invariant velocity media v(z) forms the basis of the classic Phase Shift algorithm (Gazdag, 1978).

For laterally variant media, Gazdag (1984) proposes to downward extrapolate the wave field one depth interval at a time with several velocities, then to inverse Fourier transform in x the extrapolated field and finally to interpolate each point along the X axis. In other words starting with equation (3) we consider several constant velocities (v1, v2, ...) in the interval [vmin,vmax] and downward extrapolate the wavefield to with each velocity. The resulting wavefields

are then inverse Fourier transformed in the direction of the X axis to obtain

To obtain a single downward extrapolated wavefield, for each point of X coordinates associated with a velocity v(z,x), the value of the resulting wavefield in this point is interpolated between the two wavefields with closest velocities.

In addition to this idea, Gazdag (1984) implements a technique in the PSPI algorithm to ensure that all the zero dips (corresponding to the case kx=0) are downward continued without distortion. The technique consists of multiplying the wavefield with

prior to the Fourier transformation along the X axis and multiplying the downward extrapolated wavefield by

where the subscript j denotes the index of the constant velocity used in the downward extrapolation step. As it will be seen later in the Split-step Fourier method, this supplemental phase subtractieon and addition improves the accuracy of the results.

Next: THE SPLIT-STEP FOURIER METHOD Up: Popovici : PSPI and Previous: INTRODUCTION
Stanford Exploration Project
12/18/1997