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To derive equation (16), I take the derivative of both
sides of equation (15) with respect to *s* and map the
result to Cartesian coordinates, which yields

The ray equation (6) gives
Substituting these relations from equation (B.2) into equation (B.1)
and multiplying both sizes by *m*(*x*,*z*) yields equation (16):
When (*x*,*z*) tends to (*x*_{0},*z*_{0}), *s* tends to *s*_{0} and tends to zero,
which gives the initial condition.

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Stanford Exploration Project

12/18/1997