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The error in estimating *p* can not be directly evaluated because the true
value of *p* is unknown. However, a function of *p* that is related to
this error can be evaluated:
| |
(3) |

where *W*_{t} and *W*_{x} are weighting functions.
As a function of *p*, *E*(*t*,*x*,*p*) measures the differences
between the traces within the
subsection *P*_{ij}. This function reaches its minimum value when the
estimated *p* is equal to the true dip at (*t*,*x*). Therefore, it can be used
as an error measure.
It may be desirable to have an error measure that is bounded between
and 1. This can be easily done through normalization:

| |
(4) |

One can estimate *p* by minimizing either *E*(*x*,*t*,*p*) or *E*_{n}(*x*,*t*,*p*).
If the data contain rich low-frequency components, such as a smoothed well log,
equation (3) should be used. For seismic data, the normalized
error measure should be used.

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Stanford Exploration Project

12/18/1997