Exact seismic velocities for TI media and extended Thomsen formulas for stronger anisotropies |

Probably the easiest way to obtain formulas pertinent to HTI (horizontal transverse isotropy) from VTI (vertical transverse isotropy) is to leave the stiffness matrix alone, and simply reinterpret the meaning of the Cartesian indices . For VTI media, one typical choice is , where is the vertical direction at the surface of the earth, or more often the direction down into the earth. Then, the angle of incidence is measured with respect to , where means parallel to and pointing into the earth, and means horizontal incidence.

Considering aligned vertical fractures, with their axes of symmetry in the direction
, the matrix itself presented in the main text need not change,
but the meaning of the angles does change. Clearly, the simplest case to study -- and the
only one analyzed here -- is the case of waves propagating at some angle to vertical
but always having a component in the direction , while also having ,
thus lying in the -plane perpendicular to the fracture plane. (This case is special, but all
other wave speeds at other angles of propagation are easily found as a linear combination --
depending specifically on the azimuthal angle at the earth surface -- of
these values and those in the plane of the fractures themselves.) Then,

and

Since all the angular dependence in the exact formulas is in the form of and , and since and vice versa, the entire procedure amounts to switching the locations of and with and everywhere in the exact expressions.

This procedure is obviously very straightforward to implement. The final results
analogous to Thomsen's formulas are:

and

And the velocities are: , , and . Also, recall that .

For azimuthal angles , the algorithm for computing the wave speeds is to replace by and by in the exact formulas, and corresponding replacements in the approximate ones. Then, there is no angular dependence when or as our point of view then lies within the plane of the fracture itself. And, when , the above stated results for the -plane hold.

Wave equation reciprocity guarantees that the polarizations of the various waves are of the same types as our mental translation from VTI media to HTI media is made.

It is also worth pointing out that the labels and for the shear waves -- although analogous --
are, however, surely not strictly valid for the HTI case. For VTI media, the quasi--wave really
does have horizontal polarization at least at and , whereas the
corresponding wave for HTI media, instead has polarization parallel () to the
fracture plane. For VTI media, the so-called quasi--wave has its polarization in the
plane of propagation, but this polarization direction is only truly vertical for
, at which point its polarization is both
vertical and perpendicular to the horizontal plane of symmetry. The corresponding situation
for HTI media has the wave corresponding to the -wave with polarization again in the plane
of propagation, but this is actually only vertical at
, and also
parallel to the fracture plane; however, for all other angles its polarization has a
component that is perpendicular () to the plane of the fractures. So a much more
physically accurate naming convention for these waves would make use of the following designations:

for the HTI wave corresponding to the quasi-SV-wave in the VTI case. Although this notation is hereby being recommended, it will actually not be used in the main text as the current choices (as well as the various caveats) will no doubt be sufficiently familiar to most readers that it is probably not be essential to make this change in the present paper. In closing, also note that Thomsen (2002) uses the same and notation for very similar purposes.

Exact seismic velocities for TI media and extended Thomsen formulas for stronger anisotropies |

2007-09-15