From this dataset, the goal is to estimate in a least-squares sense a velocity panel with the hyperbolic radon transform of Chapter (). This velocity panel can be later used for velocity analysis or multiple attenuation Alvarez and Larner (2004); Foster and Mosher (1992); Thorson and Claerbout (1985). A conjugate-gradient (CG) solver is used for the iterations. Figure a illustrates the effects of the coherent noise on the model space after inversion of the data in Figure a. Some energy corresponding to both the signal and the noise is present in Figure a, but overall, it is quite difficult to recognize events corresponding to the signal. The remodeled data in Figure b (i.e., ) indicate that the inversion is fitting both the noise and signal, which creates artifacts in Figure a. In addition, note that the residual (i.e., ) in Figure c is not IID: a lot of coherent energy remains. Therefore, the filtering and modeling techniques are needed to obtain (1) IID residuals, (2) a better velocity panel, and (3) noise-free remodeled data.
In this example, the noise is assumed to be known. For the filtering approach, a PEF is used for in equation (). For the modeling approach, and , being the same PEF that for the filtering approach.
First, as an illustration on how a simple prediction-filter differs from a projection filter, Figure a displays the spectrum of the PEF only and Figure b the spectrum of the projection filter with .The PEF is estimated from the known noise, and we notice that its spectrum in Figure a is the smallest at the noise location. The amplitude varies a lot with local minima and a maximum amplitude far from one, however. The spectrum of the projection filter in Figure b is better behaved: it equals zero at the noise location and is flat almost everywhere. The maximum energy is not exactly one because a damping term was added for the division.
Figure displays the result of the inversion with the filtering approach. The estimated model in Figure a is now noise-free and the hyperbolas are well focused in the velocity space. The residual in Figure d has no coherent energy left and is IID. The remodeled data in Figure b are also basically noise free, and so is the unweighted residual () in Figure c. Therefore, the filtering technique worked very well and delivered the expected results.
Figure shows the result of the modeling approach. Remember that the inverse of the PEF estimated from the true noise is used for the noise operator and that the hyperbolic radon transform is used to model the signal. The balancing parameter in equation () is chosen by trial and error.
The estimated model after inversion is shown in Figure a. Similar to what we observed with the filtering approach, the model is noise free and easy to interpret. The remodeled data in Figure b show a little bit of coherent noise. The problem stems from the fact that the two modeling operators overlap: the inverse PEF can model some tails of hyperbolas and the radon transform can fit some of the coherent noise (because the velocity of the noise is within the range of the slowness scan). Although not crucial here, a regularization term would improve this result Nemeth (1996). The estimated noise of Figure c proves that the separation worked very well. A little bit of one hyperbola has been absorbed, however. The residual in Figure d is IID which confirms that the goals of this technique were reached.