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Concluding Remarks

Generating 2D and 3D coordinate systems using geometric ray-tracing on potential function solutions of Laplace's equation is a viable approach. Because of certain properties of potential functions, ray-traced coordinate systems are guaranteed to be orthogonal. Importantly, these coordinate systems are appropriate for 3D Riemannian wavefield extrapolation, and can be applied in numerous scenarios, including wave-equation migration directly from an undulating 2D topographic surface, and VSP imaging from deviated wells.

Stanford Exploration Project