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A simple way of deriving the equation is by a
second order Taylor series expansion of the extrapolation
wavenumber relative to and :
 

 (21) 
If we plug equation (20) into equation (21), we obtain
an equivalent form for the equation in a
semiorthogonal 3D Riemannian space:
 

 
 (22) 
For the particular case of Cartesian coordinates
(),
 
(23) 
which is the usual form of the equation.
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Stanford Exploration Project
10/14/2003