Taking a lead from takes a lead from Claerbout (1968) where it is shown that the autocorrelation function of the transmission series of the earth is directly related to a reflection seismogram, Schuster et al. (1997) develops the mathematics behind prestack migration of autocorrelograms. Schuster and Rickett (2000) then go on the generalize that work outlining the imaging conditions for both reflectivity and source location of correlation datasets. Anstey (1964) gives a very thorough treatment of the fundamentals of correlation techniques in general.
Pre-dating all of the above is a patent application submitted by Weller (1969) describing this exact process of collection and correlation of passive seismic receiver stations. Weller (1969) describes a 2-dimensional acquisition in the Gulf-coast region as returning convincing sequence boundary reflections from recordings on the order of eight hours long.
Recognizing that this imaging methodology will involve very long time records, the work of Kostov (1990) is applicable in handling spurious and coherent noise patterns endemic to recording stations with long residence periods. This thesis treats the closely related topic of seismic imaging utilizing a turning drill-bit as a source (also treated in Cole (1995)). Specific treatment of the handling and shaping of data in a pre-processing step as well as the multichannel and areal nature of his experiments are beneficial to the development of this effort. This same topic has recently been advanced through the work of Yu and Schuster (2001) that explains migration of crosscorrelogram data collected during seismic profiling while drilling experiments as an application of the previously mentioned Schuster and Rickett (2000) derivations.
While the ultimate goal is to acquire another passive seismic data set, this paper will begin to describe investigation of this subject through the manipulation of existing data sets from the seismology community. Utilizing the capabilities of SEP3D to handle irregular datasets, I will attempt to apply the imaging methodology as described below on the 1998 Santa Clara Valley Seismic Experiment (additionally, a 1997 USGS experiment at the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii Almendros et al. (2001) exists that features several areal arrays of seismometers).